Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics

Cancer is basically a disease of tissue growth regulation. In order for a normal cell to transform into a Cancer cell, the genes that control cell growth and variation must be altered. The affected genes are divided into two broad categories: Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes. Oncogenes are genes that stimulate cell growth and reproduction. Tumor Suppressor Genes are genes that prevent cell division and survival. Malignant alteration can arise through the development of novel Oncogenes, the unfortunate over-expression of typical Oncogenes, or by the under-expression or inactivating of Tumor Suppressor Genes. Usually, alterations in Multiple Genes are essential to transform a normal cell into a Cancer cell.

Cancer Epigenetics deals with the Epigenetic Alterations to the genome of Cancer cells that do not comprise any change in the nucleotide sequence. Epigenetic Alterations are as vital as Genetic Mutations in a normal cell conversion to Cancer cells, and their manipulation holds great promise for Cancer prevention, detection, and therapy.

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