Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend International Conference on Cancer Diagnosis & Treatment Oslo, Norway.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Graham Ball

Nottingham Trent University

Keynote: Artificial Neural Network Algorithms For Biomarker Discovery And Pathway Modelling.

Time : 9:00-9:50

Conference Series Cancer Treatment 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Graham Ball  photo
Biography:

Prof Graham Ball is Professor of Bioinformatics at Nottingham Trent University and CSO of CompanDX UK and CompanDX China Ltd.  He is Associate Director the John Van Geest Cancer Research Centre and biostatistics lead on three clinical projects. He has been involved in the development and validation of bioinformatics algorithms using Artificial Neural Networks for the last 18 years.  He has 115 journal papers and 5 patents in this area.  After a PhD (UN funded) and a Post Doc modelling environmental interactions with ANNs at NTU, in 2000 he shifted the focus of his analysis to proteomic and genomic data searching for proteins and genes associated with cancer.  His current research interests are directed at the classification and characterisation of biological systems including diagnostic and classification modelling of microbial pathogens, cancer clinical pathology, allergic responses and viral diseases through the use of ANNs and other machine learning techniques.  He is involved in the molecular characterisation of Breast Cancer with Prof Ian Ellis’ team at Nottingham University Hospitals Trust. 

Abstract:

Cancer is a complex disease with a myriad of forms and prognoses occurring within each type.  For example, in breast cancer using genomic profiling in excess of 80 sub types have been identified.   The ability to characterise the disease for each patient may offer the potential to assess the molecular sub-type of the disease and thus accurately determine the patients’ prognostic outcome.  Methodologies such as mass spectrometry-based proteomics, RNASeq and gene expression arrays offer the potential for characterisation of disease derived samples using a huge number of proteins or genes.  This depth of information while providing a comprehensive overview of a disease state also proves problematic in its complexity.  One has to search through potentially hundreds of thousands of pieces of information for consistent features that address a clinical question in the population. 

The human mind is very good at finding patterns in a system but is not able to conduct the task repetitively for large numbers of parameters.  Conversely computers are very good at searching for features in such a data space, but previously defined statistical methods are not able to cope with the high complexity.  Here we present the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, a form of artificial intelligence having the characteristics of both human pattern recognition and computer automated searching) to finding genomic solutions to questions in cancer.  Here we present the use of a range of statistical and artificial intelligence-based machine learning techniques to develop prognostic models for breast cancer.

Here we present results of use of ANN algorithms for biomarker discovery, whereby we have undertaken a parallel analysis of multiple molecular databases for breast cancer and have identified markers that drive proliferation and thus predict response to anthracycline.

Keynote Forum

Yeu Su

National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan

Keynote: MicroRNA-203 diminishes the stemness of human colon cancer cells mainly by suppressing GATA6 expression

Time : 9:50-10:40

Conference Series Cancer Treatment 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Yeu Su photo
Biography:

Yeu Su has completed his PhD from University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is a Professor of the Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences of National Yang-Ming University, a premier research University in Taiwan. He has published more than 55 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of several repute journals. His research interests are colorectal carcinogenesis and new drug discovery.

Abstract:

The interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and CD44, an important cancer stem cell marker, is known to stimulate a variety of tumor cell-specific functions including their stemness. MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) can be down regulated by such an interaction in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells which results in the increase of their stemness; however, its underlying mechanism has yet been defined. Here, we show that miR-203 overexpression and sequestration in HCT-116 and HT-29 human CRC cells reduces and enhances their stemness, respectively. We subsequently find that GATA6 is a direct target of miR-203 and upregulated expression of this transcription factor not only restores the self-renewal abilities of the miR-203-overexpressing HCT-116 and HT-29 cells but also promotes the stemness properties of their parental counterparts. More importantly, we show that silencing the expression of either LRH-1 or Hes-1 is sufficient to diminish the stemness-promoting effects of GATA6. Together, our findings delineate the mechanism underlying the stemness-inhibitory effects of miR-203 in human CRC cells and suggest this miR-203 as a potential therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer.

  • Organ specific Cancer: Diagnosis & Treatment | Cancer Epidemiology |Cancer Biopsy | Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis | Cancer Screening Test | Cancer Diagnostics and Imaging | Technology Used in Cancer Detection | Surgical Oncology | Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment | Cancer Radiation Therapy | Chemotherapy | Molecular Targeted Cancer Therapy and Precision Medicines |Immunotherapy | Cell and Gene Therapy |Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) |Cancer Control and Palliative care | Transplantation to treat Cancer | Biobanking in Cancer |Cancer Epigenetics | Cancer Preventive Vaccine
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Knowing the advantages of the early diagnosis of skin cancer in Primary Care (PC) to avoid problems at the patients, especially in sunny areas, elderly and immobilized patients. In order to improve diagnosis we used the teledermatoscopy in our Health Centers (HC) for suspected cancerous skin lesions.
 
Background/aim: To evaluate the teledermatoscopy diagnosis and management of skin lesions in patients from areas which may not have ready access to a dermatologist by specially geographic isolated areas and elderly patients with mobilization problems to avoid displacement problems to the patients.
Methods :Teledermatology system was established to screening of pigmented dermatology lesions suspected of malignity in PC, especially isolated areas from the Reina Sofia Universitary Hospital (RSUH). Since September 2016 to February 2018, 214 patients belonged two HC ( La Sierra and Lucano) have been studied. In the first the visit the suspect diagnose has been done, some photos are taken using dermatoscopy to all of the lesions suspected of malignity and immediately they are sending by encrypted e-mail to the RSUH dermatologist. The suspect results were received by e-mail in the same day. Only suspected malignant lesions were referrals to dermatologist, doing the gold standard diagnosis, some was confirm to be treaty at HC of PC indicating the lesions treatment, not need treatment or to be request for dermatology study al the RSUH.
 
Results: Women 51%, men 49%. Middle age 61,73% (51,2% over 65 years old). Total malignant lesions 33,9% (basocellular carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, Bowen disease,Atypical nevus and melanoma) Non malignant lesions 66,9% (seborreic keratosis, actinic keratosis, non atypical nevus, lentigo). Suspicious lesions in PC before dermatoscopy which were indicated to go to Dermatology consultation: 83,7%. Kappa index: 0,67. Dermatology decisions: Go to the Hospital to confirm diagnose and treatment: 50%, not need treatment: 32,4%, treatment in HC: 17,6%. Hospital referrals avoied were 50%.
 
Conclusions: 1. Teledermatoscopy system is usefully to improving the screening of malignant skin lesions by its accessibility in the HC. 2. Teledermatoscopy is an efficient system to avoid displacement problems to the elder patients with malignant skin lesions especially in isolated rural areas.

Francesco Spelta

University of Verona, Italy

Title: Dietary Restriction and Intermittent Fasting in Cancer and Diseases

Time : 12:05-12:45

Speaker
Biography:

Francesco Spelta is an Internal Medicine Specialist and a PhD student at the University of Verona, Italy (PhD program in Biomedical, Clinical and Experimental Sciences). He has spent more than one year at Washington University in St. Louis, USA as a Visiting Researcher, working with Dr. Luigi Fontana’s group on clinical trials focused on the role of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in longevity and health. His main interests are related to nutrition in different conditions, particularly regarding cardio-pulmonary diseases. Recently, he has joined the University of Oslo for a short term internship in Prof. Alessandro Cataliotti lab, working on heart failure. His research interest is nutrition in disease prevention.

Abstract:

Several epidemiological surveys have highlighted a link between diet and cancer risk. New diet strategies have been proposed so far, to slow down cancer growth or to reduce chemotherapy side effects, i.e. dietary restriction and different fasting regimens. A substantial protein and calorie restriction may directly inhibit tumor cell growth via the inhibition of the IGF-1- mTORC1 axis, in a xenograft mouse model of breast cancer, while a moderate protein restriction may induce an anticancer response increasing IFNγ expression (via immunomodulation of T-cells), leading to an increased “immunosurveillance’ in the tumor microenvironment in mice. Moreover, downstream of different nutrient-sensitive pathways are regulated in an opposite way by fasting and fasting mimicking diets in normal and cancer cells, resulting in protection against chemotherapy of the normal cells and improving the inhibition of tumor growth by chemotherapy itself. Although randomized clinical studies have been conducted on a limited number of patients, the results of some pilot studies are supporting the efficacy of restricted diets in cancer therapy. These findings are in accordance with the overall health benefits provided by dietary restriction regimens in the cardiovascular system and in slowing the aging process, one of the most important risk factors for cancer development.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Introduction: Fatigue is one of the most disabling phenomenon among patients receiving anti cancer treatment, which has profound effect on their Quality of Life (QOL). Although clinicians across the globe acknowledge the importance of regular assessment of fatigue, however it is seldom being assessed and documented in clinical practice in India and therefore remains unidentified parameter among oncology practice in this country, also very few studies in the literature exist reporting on Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) among Indian population.

Objective: The main objective of this study is to find out the prevalence and severity of cancer related fatigue (CRF) and its implication on psychosocial wellbeing among Indian cancer patients.

Methodology: For this study an exploratory design was adopted, using a purposive sampling method, patients (N=206, M: 100 & F: 106) undergoing chemotherapy at Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Delhi, India; aged 18-83 years were included. The level of fatigue was assessed using 16-item Multidimensional assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale and a semi structured in-depth interview schedule. These interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed.

Results: Irrespective of age, and education, 81% patients experience clinically significant fatigue, of which extreme level of fatigue was reported by 29% patients requiring immediate clinical intervention and 52% patients reported moderate level of fatigue, which is also clinically significant. The level of fatigue was reported more in females than males. Top four psychosocial issues reported were; apprehension of chemotherapy side effects (23.5%), fear of pain during CT (18.5%), Loss of apatite (17.5%) and anxiety during chemo therapy (13.5%), followed by combination of multiple psycho social issues by 11 %, and financial and logistic issues by (11%). Among all the patients, (49.5%) were aware of their diagnosis, of which 8% were either fully aware or partially aware about the prognosis (23%).

Conclusion: Fatigue remains one of the most important clinical parameters among majority of Indian patients receiving chemotherapy, with females reporting it more as compared to their counterparts and  is neither assessed by clinicians nor reported by majority of the patients. While almost one fourth of the patients report fear of chemotherapy as their pressing psychosocial concern during CT, others report fear of pain, loss of apatite, manifest anxiety symptoms or report financial and logistic issues during CT. Indian patients should be evaluated for treatable conditions that might contribute in achieving promising clinical outcomes. Exercise, educational material and psychotherapeutic interventions should also be developed to prepare and support them during their treatment phase, which will ultimately lead to better preparedness of side effects and their management, better information of the disease, better coping strategies, reduced symptoms and better quality of life.

Speaker
Biography:

Man Hee Rhee graduated in Veterinary Medicine in 1989, completed his PhD degree in 2000 in Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. He is the chairman of Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of internationally renowned Journal. 

Abstract:

The potential benefits of ginseng range from energizing the body to providing the longevity. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the most effective ginseng saponins, has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects.  Numerous previous studies have unraveled the Rg3 Pharmacological effects. One recent study has also revealed its protective cardiovascular effects in hyper sensitive rats. Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Rg3  in vitro on murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells.  We found that Rg3 in dose dependent manner attenuate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines after LPS induction. The MTT assay for dose dependent concentrations of Rg3 show no cytotoxicity and Nitric oxide concentration show a decreasing trend with increase in dose. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α show the same trend like that of Nitric oxide production. The protein  expression shown by Rg3-RGE clearly indicates that it signal transduces via MAPK and NF-κB pathways. More investigation into signal mediation revealed that Rg3-RGE mediates its antiinflammatory action via RXRα receptors. Moreover the our invivo data shows that Rg3-RGE very strongly protected the mice against LPS induced septic shock.

Speaker
Biography:

Man Hee Rhee graduated in Veterinary Medicine in 1989, completed his PhD degree in 2000 in Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. He is the chairman of Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of internationally renowned Journal. 

Abstract:

Recently, the importance of platelet activation in cancer metastasis is generally accepted and development of new platelet inhibitor with minimal adverse effect is a promising area of targeted cancer therapy. Baicalein is a one of functional ingredient derived from the root of Huangqin. Its pharmacological effects including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammative effects have already been shown. However, effect on platelet activation of this molecule is scarce. Therefore, we investigate the effects and its molecular mechanisms of baicalein on various agonists, including tumor cell, -stimulated platelet activation and pulmonary cancer metastasis.

Effects of baicalein on agonist-stimulated platelet activation, granule secretion and adhesion molecule expression, cyclic-nucleotide release, VASP and MAPK phosphorylations were evaluated. Indeed, influences of baicalein on platelet aggregation induced by tumor cells and adhesion of cancer cell-platelets were evaluated. Finally, after acute toxicity test, we also examined the anti-metastatic activities of baicalein using relevant in vivo metastasis models. 

Key result: Baicalein inhibited various agonists such as collagen, ADP, and thrombin-induced platelet activation in a concentration dependent manner. Agonist-induced granule secretion (P-selectin expression, ATP release), mobilization of intracellular [Ca2+]i and glycoprotein Ⅱa/Ⅲb expression were also reduced in baicalein-treated platelets. Baicalein also attenuated ERK2, p38 and Akt activation and enhanced VASP phosphorylations that was reversed by H-89 (PKA inhibitor). Moreover baicalein attenuated C6 rat glioma tumor cells-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and CT26 colon cancer metastasis in vivo.

Baicalein shows broad anti-platelet properties. This feature might have therapeutic implications for the prevention of cancer metastasis

Speaker
Biography:

Professor Kim has completed his PhD from Seoul National University College of Medicine in Korea. He is a professor of the department of Cancer Control and Policy, Graduate school of Cancer Science and Policy (GCSP). He has published more than 56 papers in reputed journals and is the principle of investigator of Korean Lung Cancer Screening Project (K-LUCAS) for high-risk smokers.

Abstract:

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality and has a low survival rate as it is difficult to detect early. Korean Lung Cancer Screening demonstration project (KLUCAS) was started from February 2017. KLUCAS will assess the effectiveness, harm, and feasibility of lung cancer screening in order to implement a population-based screening program. KLUCAS evaluates the validation of the new standards of reporting form of LDCT and the quality of lung cancer screening by web-based network system using computer-aid nodule detection program (CAD). KLUCAS is conducted with 14 cancer hospitals. KLUCAS targeted high-risk individuals who are current and former smokers with at least a 30 pack-year. The participants were recruited through the national cancer screening center visitors or smoking cessation clinic visitors based on a lung cancer risk evaluation questionnaire. Among 5,706 participants, KLUCAS detect 35 lung cancer. Among detected lung cancer, 69.9% are early stage. CAD detcts more positive findings but decreases the variation of positive rate among screening units. About 75% of of abnormal findings including emphsema, coronary artery calcification etc. besides lung nodules are detected from KLUCAS.

Speaker
Biography:

Jaleel Kareem Ahmed has completed his PhD from Baghdad University. He is the Dean of the Institute of Foundry and Hammering. He has registered eight patents with 40 published papers and three books. He is a Member in Who is Who network. He is a Reviewer in Jon Wiley and Sons and Editorial Board Member of Science Publishing Group and a Member in Encyclopedia of Chemistry Scientists. He has got the Iraqi Scientist Medal. Currently, he is a Professor of Physical Chemistry in the College of Materials Engineering, Babylon University, Iraq.

 

Abstract:

Anthocyanin is found mainly in red beet juice, cherry, red rose. It is red color pigment with high solubility in water. The power of exchangeable proton in its juice from red beet nearly 6.4 while in red rose juice is more acidic i.e. pH<6.4. The expected structure of M-Cyanidin-3-glucoside complex in acidic pH (M=Pb, Cd) is shown in figure 2. This is similar to the behavior of cation exchanger in demineralization processes of water (hetero reaction) while with the anthocyanin juice is homogenous reaction. Addition of heavy metal salt like metal nitrate (water soluble) result in sudden precipitation of metal anthocyanin and the color of the solution disappear slowly and the pH of the solution become more acidic to the formation of nitric acid in which the pH reaches nearly four. No precipitations shown with sodium and potassium ions while with magnesium and calcium ions need high concentration of them. Anthocyanin can be used to purify water from poisonous metals ions. Anthocyanin color in acidic solution is shine red while changed to reddish green color in basic solution and deep red color in neutral solutions so it is suitable indicator in acid-base reaction more suitable than classically used phenolphthalein indicator which is water insoluble. Irrigation of red rose plant with acidic solution like hydrochloric acid result in changing the color of the rose from deep red to shine red, also that happen when red rose plant left in acidic atmosphere. This is a good test for detection of acidic rain in industrial area.

Tariq Nadeem

National Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, Lahore (Pakistan)

Title: Glycosylation of Recombinant Anti-Cancer Therapeutics in Different Expression Systems With Their Emerging Technologies

Time : 13:20-16:00

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Glycosylation, a post translational modification, has a great role in recombinant anticancer therapeutic proteins, as most of the approved recombinant therapeutics are glycoproteins. The constant amino acid sequence of therapeutics determines the enzymatic activity while the glycan associated influence their pharmacokinetics, solubility, distribution, serum half-life, effector function and binding to receptors. Glycoproteins expressed in different expression systems get their own oligosaccharides, which increases the diversity of proteins. Glycan structure also varies from batch to batch in a single expression system, depending on culturing conditions and medium. Heterogeneity of glycan creates hurdles in downstream processing, ultimately leading to variable anticancer therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, glycoproteins require appropriate expression system to catch structurally and functionally identical glycan, like human. In different types of glycosylation, N-glycosylation has acquired great attention because much is known about it. In many expression systems, its pathway remains conserved in endoplasmic reticulum but divergence has been observed when it enters the Golgi complex. Hence, in the recent decades, numerous approaches have been adopted for the engineering of Golgi’s N-glycosylation pathway to attain human like glycan. Some of the researchers have tried to engineer the N- glycosylation pathway of expression systems by introduction and knock down of various genes. Others have worked on the site-directed mutagenesis of glycosylation potential sites and in vitro glycosylation remodeling via chemo-enzymes. In this review, we have emphasized on glycosylation pattern in various expression systems with their emerging technologies for glycosylation engineering of anticancer therapeutic drugs.

Key words: N-Glycosylation; glycoproteins; glycoengineering; GlycoSwitch; GlycoFi; GlycoDelete; yeast expression system; mammalian expression system.